haplogroup g origin

It encompasses a small group of Hispanic men who also so far all have the odd value of 13,21 at the YCA marker. A plot of the sub-clades included in the principal component analysis (Figure 3b) indicates that the clustering of the populations from NW Caucasus is due to their U1* frequency, whereas L497 lineages account for the separation of central Europeans. In the northern and highland areas of the island of Sardinia off western Italy, G percentages reach 11% of the population in one study[17] and reached 21% in the town of Tempio in another study. Principal component analysis based on G sub-haplogroup frequencies was performed using the freeware POPSTR program (http://harpending.humanevo.utah.edu/popstr/). Forensic Sci Int-Gen 2007; 1: 287290. In Russia, Ukraine and Central Asia, members of various ethnic minorities and/or residents in particular localities possess G-M201 at its highest levels in the world even though the average rate at the national level is about 1% or less. Luis JR, Rowold DJ, Regueiro M et al. The mutations involved may be complicated and difficult to interpret. Science 2000; 290: 11551159. Ancient DNA suggests the leading role played by men in the Neolithic dissemination. RV thanks the European Union Regional Development Fund for support through the Centre of Excellence in Genomics, the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research for the Basic Research grant SF 0270177As08. G1-M285, previously described in the Iranian population . Its members include "tzi",[citation needed] the so-called Iceman, who died at least 5,000 years BP in the European Alps. The suggested relevant pre-historical climatic and archeological periods specified in conjunction with lineage-specific estimated expansion times are specified in the summary portion of Supplementary Table S4. The L141 mutation is found on the Y chromosome at 2948607. The 12f2a mutation, which characterizes haplogroup J, was observed in 445 subjects. The most recent study (2010) estimates the common ancestor of all men in haplogroup G lived in Asia about 17,000 years ago, and the ancestor of the G2 subgroup lived about 15,000 years ago. They are found only in tiny numbers elsewhere. G2a2b1 is more common in southern Europe than northern Europe. Ann Hum Genet 2008; 72: 205214. Article The oldest skeletons confirmed by ancient DNA testing as carrying haplogroup G2a were five found in the Avellaner cave burial site, near Les Planes d'Hostoles, in Catalonia, Spain and were dated by radiocarbon dating to about 5000 BCE. The mutation involves a change from C to T.[citation needed] L223 is found on the Y chromosome at rs13304806. [5] Cinnioglu et al. In addition, there are multiple other SNPs thought to have the same coverage as M201. Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A-L1085 (and previously as A0'1'2'3'4). The Iceman belongs to haplogroup G2a2b [13] (earlier called G2a4). A more compact cluster of Near/Middle Eastern samples is also resolved in the network. An assessment of the Y-chromosome phylogeography-based proposal that the spread of G2a-L497 chromosomes originated from Central Europe could be achieved by typing this SNP in the Holocene period human remains from Germany31 as well as those from France and Spain.45, 46 Certainly, Y chromosome represents only a small part of human genome and any population-level interpretation of gene flow in this region would have to be supported by genome-wide evidence. G-CTS2488 or G2a2b2 (also known as G-L141.1; previously G-141 and G2a3b) was identified only in mid-2009 at Family Tree DNA. Evaluation of Y-chromosomal STRs: a multicenter study. Gurdeep Matharu Lall, Maarten H. D. Larmuseau, Mark A. Jobling, Hovhannes Sahakyan, Ashot Margaryan, Richard Villems, Javier Rodriguez Luis, Leire Palencia-Madrid, Rene J. Herrera, Sandra Oliveira, Alexander Hbner, Jorge Rocha, Alessandra Modi, Desislava Nesheva, David Caramelli, Maxat Zhabagin, Zhaxylyk Sabitov, Elena Balanovska, Veronika Csky, Dniel Gerber, Anna Szcsnyi-Nagy, European Journal of Human Genetics This group was created for the folks who's paternal Y-DNA reflects they belong to haplogroup G2a (G-P15). In the Tirol (Tyrol) of western Austria, the percentage of G-M201 can reach 40% or more; perhaps the most famous example is the ancient remains of the so-called "Iceman", tzi. In human genetics, Haplogroup G (M201) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. Evolutionary Biology Group, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia, Siiri Rootsi,Mari Jrve,Ildus Kutuev,Krt Varendi,Hovhannes Sahakyan,Doron M Behar,Alena Kushniarevich&Richard Villems, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia, Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia, Ildus Kutuev,Elza K Khusnutdinova&Rita Khusainova, Departamento de Gentica, Facultad de Biologa, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, Human Genetics Group, Institute of Molecular Biology, Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia, Hovhannes Sahakyan,Levon Yepiskoposyan&Ardeshir Bahmanimehr, Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia, Immunology department, Allergy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA, Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie L. Elizabeth T Wood, Daryn A Stover, Christopher Ehret, L177, later discarded in favour of PF3359 and equivalent SNPs, was first identified at. Moreover, these general frequencies mostly consist of two notable lineages. (2000) suggested 17,000 years ago. The Y-chromosomal haplogroup G (hg G) is currently defined as one of the 20 standard haplogroups comprising the global Y-chromosome phylogeny.1 The phylogeographic demarcation zone of hg G is largely restricted to populations of the Caucasus and the Near/Middle East and southern Europe. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 74: 10231034. Hum Genet 2004; 114: 127148. Using Y-STR data, the Td expansion time for all combined P15-affiliated chromosomes was estimated to be 150822217 years ago. So far all G2a1 persons have a value of 10 at STR marker DYS392. Mol Biol Evol 2011; 28: 29052920. Google Scholar. It was found with burial artifacts belonging to the Linearbandkeramische Kultur ("Linear Band Ceramic Culture"; LBK). G2a2b1 so far has seldom surfaced in northern Africa or southern Asia, but represents a small percentage of the G population in the Caucasus Mountains region and in Iran. Haplogroup G men who belong to this group, but are negative for all G2a subclades, are uncommon in Europe but may represent a sizeable group in so far poorly tested areas east of Turkey. Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1. Although compared with G1-M285, the phylogenetic level of P303 (Figure 1) is shallower but its geographic spread zone covers the whole hg G distribution area (Figure 2b). Digora, North Ossetia has the highest known concentration of G in a single city, as 74% of the tested men were G.[14] Haplogroup G is found as far east as northern China in small percentages where G can reach more substantial percentages in minority groups such as the Uyghurs. Haplogroup definition, a set of similar haplotypes inherited together, or a group who shares a set of similar haplotypes, used to understand genetic lineages. There are multiple SNPs which so far have the same coverage as P15. The Network (Fluxus-Engineering) program was used (median-joining algorithm and the post-processing option). The fragments were run on the ABI PRISM 3130xl Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). In addition, we introduce five new markers: M426, M461, M485, M527 and M547 (Supplementary Table S2). [16] The concentration of G falls below this average in Scandinavia, the westernmost former Soviet republics and Poland, as well as in Iceland and the British Isles. The discovery of new SNPs can result in assignment of new names to haplogroup categories. The SNP L497 encompasses these men, but most G-L497 men belong to its subclade G-Z725, also known as G-DYS388=13. Thank you for visiting nature.com. But a high percentage of U1 men belong to its two subclades, G-L13/S13 and Z1266 (G2a3b1a1b). These latter labs also made use of raw data results reported by individuals tested for about 2,000 SNPs at 23andMe to provide new L or S-designated SNP tests. Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure. Two sources of the Russian patrilineal heritage in their Eurasian context. Google Scholar. Beginning in 2008, additional G SNPs were identified at Family Tree DNA (L designations) and Ethnoancestry (S designations). The G-L13 subclade is most common in north central Europe, and G-Z1266 is most common in the western Caucasus Mountains. The extreme rarity of G-M377 in northern Pakistan could indicate that G2b in this area originates outside the region and was brought there in the historic period, perhaps from further west (Pakistan was part of both the Achaemenid Persian Empire, conquered by Alexander the Great, and then formed a part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom). The coalescent times (Td) of various haplogroups were estimated using the ASDo methodology described by Zhivotovsky et al,32 modified according to Sengupta et al.13 We used the evolutionary effective mutation rate of 6.9 104 per 25 years, as pedigree rates are arguably only pertinent to shallow rooted familial pedigrees,33 as they do not consider the evolutionary consequences of population dynamics including the rapid extinction of newly appearing microsatellite alleles. PLoS One 2009; 4: e5792. There were only a few G categories until 2008 when major revisions to categories were made. Cavalli-Sforza L, Menozzi P, Piazza A : The History and Geography of Human Genes. (2004) Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the . Mitochondrial haplogroup N is a "Macro-haplogroup", also called a "Superhaplogroup." All humans who left Africa descended from mtDNA haplogroup L3, and that ancient lineage soon gave rise to two great daughter families, M and N, which, in turn, became the mothers of billions. Genome Res 2008; 18: 830838. P257 was first reported in 2008. Balanovsky O, Dibirova K, Dybo A et al. Flores C, Maca-Meyer N, Gonzalez AM et al. (This followed the publication of: Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS. Eur J Hum Genet 2007; 15: 485493. Included within G-L91 are some men with double values for STR marker DYS19, but there are also G2a2 men with this finding who are not L91+. Important caveats to consider include the fact that Td is sensitive to authentic rare outlier alleles and that multiple founders during population formation will inflate the age estimate of the event. It is one of two branches of the parent haplogroup GHIJK, the other being HIJK. Nat Commun 2012; 3. de Knijff P, Kayser M, Caglia A et al. . Men from the Caucasus and men from eastern Europe also form distinctive STR clusters. If a sample meets the criteria indicated for these three markers, it is likely the sample is G2a2b1. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative, European Journal of Human Genetics (2021), European Journal of Human Genetics (2020), European Journal of Human Genetics (Eur J Hum Genet) G-L91 would seem to encompass a significant proportion of men belonging to G. L91 is found so far in scattered parts of Europe and North Africa and in Armenia. In contrast to G1, the absolute majority of hg G samples belonged to G2-P287-related sub-clades, with the vast majority of them being associated with G2a-P15-related lineages. The second common hg G lineage in the Caucasus is U1, which has its highest frequencies in the South (22.8% in Abkhazians) and NW Caucasus (about 39.7% in Adyghe and 36.5% in Cherkessians), but also reaches the Near/Middle East with the highest frequency in Palestinians (16.7%) and, shows extremely low frequency in Eastern Europe. This group has been linked with the Crypto-Jewish population which fled to the island during the time of the Spanish Inquisition, of which a significant portion are identifiable as G-Z725 (DYS388=13). Age: About 7,800 years ago Origin: Eurasia Y-Haplotree. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 74: 5061. Internet Explorer). Spatial frequency maps for hg G sub-clades that attained 10% frequency in at least one population were obtained by applying the haplogroup frequencies from Supplementary Table S1. Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area. In addition, K-Y28299, which appears to be a primary branch of K-M2313, has been found in three living individuals from India. We performed principal component analysis to determine the affinities of various hg G fractions with respect to total M201 among different populations, using the frequency distributions of the following sub-clades: M285, P20, M377, M287, P287, P15*, P16, M286, M485, P303*, L497, U1*, M527, M406 and Page19. Origin. The frequency pattern and the microsatellite network of E-M2(xM191) indicate a West African origin followed by expansion, a result that is in agreement with the findings of Cruciani et al. Chiaroni J, King RJ, Myres NM et al. The origin of haplogroup G is controversial. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 74: 694704. Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content: Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Moreover, the accuracy and validity of the evolutionary rate has been independently confirmed in several deep-rooted Hutterite pedigrees.34 Furthermore pedigree rate-based estimates cannot be substantiated, as they are often inconsistent with dateable archeological knowledge, for example, as clearly illustrated regarding the peopling of the Americas.35 Coalescent times based on 10 STR loci (DYS19, DYS388, DYS389I, DYS389b, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS439, DYS461-TAGA counts) and the median haplotypes of specific hg G sub-haplogroups are presented in Supplementary Table S4. The new phylogenetic and phylogeographic information provides additional insights into the demographic history and migratory events in Eurasia involving hg G. The present study comprises data from 98 populations totaling 17577 individuals, of which 1472 were members of hg G. The haplogroup frequency data are presented in Supplementary Table S1. Haplogroup H The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective. In Lebanon, however, G accounts for 6.5% of the population and in Iran to around 10%. Zhivotovsky LA, Underhill PA, Feldman MW : Difference between evolutionarily effective and germ line mutation rate due to stochastically varying haplogroup size. These are found at: rs9786910, rs9786537, rs2713254, rs35567891 and rs34621155 on the Y chromosome. EKK thanks the Russian Academy of Sciences Program for Fundamental Research Biodiversity and dynamics of gene pools, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation for state contracts P-325 and 02.740.11.07.01, and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research for grants 04-04-48678- and 07-04-01016-. Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. Several G-PF3359 subclades, based on shared STR markers, probably exist. G-M201 is most commonly found among various ethnic groups of the Caucasus, but is also widely distributed at low frequencies among ethnic groups throughout Europe, South Asia, Central Asia, and North Africa. Although no basal G-M201* chromosomes were detected in our data set, the homeland of this haplogroup has been estimated to be somewhere nearby eastern Anatolia, Armenia or western Iran, the only areas characterized by the co-presence of deep basal branches as well as the occurrence of high sub-haplogroup diversity. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d. Am J Hum Genet 2007; 80: 759768. Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language. The hg G2a3b1c-L497 sub-cluster, on the other hand, has so far been found essentially in European populations and therefore is probably autochthonous to Europe. But unusual values or unusual value combinations found at short tandem repeat markers (STRs) can also provide the basis of additional taxonomisation. The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations. [7], (Subclades here conform to the Y-DNA SNP definitions used by ISOGG In 2012, several categories found only in one man in research studies were removed from the ISOGG tree causing some renaming. In the Americas, the percentage of haplogroup G corresponds to the numbers of persons from Old World countries who emigrated. The L91 mutation is found at 21327383 and rs35474563 on the Y-chromosome. Dulik MC, Zhadanov SI, Osipova LP et al. It has been found in Mexican mestizos. To accommodate for variability in sample sizes and hg G content, haplogroup diversity was calculated using the method of Nei37 only in the 52 instances when total population sample size exceeded 50 individuals and 5hg G chromosomes were observed. Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. Am J Hum Genet 2012; 90: 573. Sims LM, Garvey D, Ballantyne J : Improved resolution haplogroup G phylogeny in the Y chromosome, revealed by a set of newly characterized SNPs. Haplogroup G2a (G-P15) has been identified in Neolithic human remains in Europe dating between 5000 and 3000 BC. The following SNPs are so far identified as M201 equivalents: L116, L154, L269, L294, L240, P257, L402, L520, L521, L522, L523, L605, Page 94, U2, U3, U6, U7, U12, U17, U20, U21, U23 and U33. Haplogroup G (M201) is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup. Circles represent microsatellite haplotypes, the areas of the circles and sectors are proportional to haplotype frequency (smallest circle corresponds to one individual) and the geographic area is indicated by color. A network analysis of representative hg G-P16 Y-STR haplotypes reveals a diffuse cluster (Supplementary Figure S2). [21] In a study of 936 Indians, haplogroup G made up less than 1% of the sample and was completely absent in the tested Northwestern Indian population. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) maintains the most up-to-date consensus version of haplogroup categories. Int J Legal Med 1997; 110: 141149. Semino O, Passarino G, Oefner PJ et al. The Morans I coefficient was calculated using the PASSAGE software v.1.1 (Phoenix, AZ, USA) with binary weight matrix, nine distance classes and random distribution assumption. In the Greek island of Crete, approximately 7%[18] to 11%[19] of males belong to haplogroup G. Haplogroup F is the parent of haplogroups from G to R; however excluding these common haplogroups, the minor clades F*, F1, and F2, seem to appear in the Indian continent [68]. This skeleton could not be dated by radiocarbon dating, but other skeletons there were dated to between 5,100 and 6,100 years old. A majority of members of G-P303 belong to one of its subclades, rather than to G-P303*, The largest G-P303* subclade based on available samples is one in which almost all persons have the value of 13 at STR marker DYS388. So far the men positive for this have had Irish, English, Dutch, Lebanese and/or Turkish (Armenian surname) ancestry. Geographic spread patterns of the P303-derived groups defined by L497, U1 and P15(xP303)-derived P16 and M406 lineages, all of which achieve a peak frequency of at least 10%, are presented in Figures 2bf, respectively. The emergence of Y-chromosome haplogroup J1e among Arabic-speaking populations. This haplogroup was found in a Neolithic skeleton from around 5000 BC, in the cemetery of Derenburg Meerenstieg II, Germany, which forms part of the Linear Pottery culture, known in German as Linearbandkeramik (LBK),[11] but was not tested for G2a3 subclades. In Wales, a distinctive G2a3b1 type (DYS388=13 and DYS594=11) dominates there and pushes the G percentage of the population higher than in England. Am J Hum Genet 2003; 72: 313332. Interestingly, the L30 SNP, phylogenetically equivalent to M485, M547 and U8, was detected in an approximately 7000-year-old Neolithic specimen from Germany, although this ancient DNA sample was not resolved further to additional sub-clade levels.39. Pichler I, Fuchsberger C, Platzer C et al. The most detailed SNP mutation identified was S126 (L30), which defines G2a3.[11]. Artefactual values below 0% values were not depicted. P15 was identified at the University of Arizona and became widely known by 2002. The second component, influenced by the relatively high presence of M377, separates Ashkenazi Jews from other populations (Figure 3a). Haplogroup G is observed in this survey as G1-M285 and G2a-P15. The identification of a new SNP can necessitate renaming of one or more categories. [24] Haplogroup G-M201 is believed to have been relatively absent during Neolithic India; the frequencies of the G2a-P15 subclade for example was negligible in indigenous Indian populations. G2a was found also in 20 out of 22 samples of ancient Y-DNA from Treilles, the type-site of a Late Neolithic group of farmers in the South of France, dated to about 5000 years ago.

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