They claim that the term, which refers to the "praise" or "glorification" (slava) of the universal order (Prav, cf. ", " '', " ( )", " : XXI ", " : ", "Neo-paganism and Ethnic Nationalism in Eastern Europe", "Ancestral Wisdom and Ethnic Nationalism: A View from Eastern Europe", "Strategies for Constructing Religious Practice in Polish Rodzimowierstwo", " : Merjamaa ", N.N. , According to Aitamurto, rituals play "a central role in defining, learning and transmitting the religion", and thus they constitute an important complement to Rodnover theology.  Some Rodnover groups have appropriated or reappropriated Christian festivals.  It is probable that the Book of Veles was a literary composition produced by Mirolyubov himself. No need to register, buy now! , The Aryan myth in Slavic neo-paganism is part of a contemporary global phenomena, which consists in the creation of "traditions". For instance, the end of winter is marked by burning straw images of Marzanna, the goddess of winter, while celebrating the victory of Yarilo, the god of the full swing of natural forces; the end of summer, instead, is marked by the burial of an image of Yarilo.  Rodnovery has also contributed to the diffusion of "historical themes"particularly regarding an ancient Aryan raceto the general population, including many who were Orthodox or non-religious.. The Slavs believed in three planes of existence: the heavens, governed by Perun, Dazhbog, Mokosh and Lada, symbolized by the sun and the moon; the earthly plane, occupied by humanity; and the underworld, symbolized by snakes and darkness, ruled over by Veles.  Some Sylenkoite organisations commemorate Ukrainian national heroes such as Taras Shevchenko, Ivan Franko, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and Hryhory Skovoroda. The Slavs believed in three planes of existence: the heavens, governed by Perun, Dazhbog, Mokosh and Lada, symbolized by the sun and the moon; the earthly plane, occupied by humanity; and the underworld, symbolized by snakes and darkness, ruled over by Veles.  Koliada Viatichey refutes any non-Slavic influence in their religion, including the label "Vedic" and Vedic literature, influences from Eastern religions, influences from Roerichism and esotericism, and also the Book of Veles. Chernobog translates literally to black god. Slavic religion dealt often in duality, meaning that the black god would oppose, or perhaps compliment, the white god (Belobog). Check out our slavic pagan symbol selection for the very best in unique or custom, handmade pieces from our shops.  A variant of "Rodnovery" is "Rodianism" (Rodianstvo), which Laruelle also translates as "Ancestrism". It consists in the establishment of an ethnoreligious identity among those Russians who have Meryan ancestry; Merya are Volga Finns fully assimilated by East Slavs in the historical process of formation of the Russian ethnicity.  Lesiv reported about a Sylenkoite follower who said that "we cannot believe in various forest, field and water spirits today.  A form of organisation of Rodnover communities consists in the establishment of places for commonunal living, such as fortresses (kremlin) or citadels (gorodok), in which temples are surrounded by buildings for various social uses. They are those responsible for holding rites for worshipping the gods and leading communities and religious festivals.  He was nevertheless labelled a neopoganin ("Neopagan") by the Polish popular press, a term that he embraced as a self-descriptor in later life.  Although some Rodnovers aspire to paradise, they argue that retribution is not deferred to a transcendent future but realised in the here and now; since gods manifest themselves as the natural phenomena, and in people as lineage descendants, Rodnovers believe that actions and their outcomes unfold and are to be dealt with in the present world. Greek Orthotes, Sanskrit ta) in primordial undeterminacy (chaos), through a dual dynamism, represented by Belobog ("White God") and Chernobog ("Black God"), the forces of waxing and waning, and then giving rise to the world in its three qualities, Prav-Yav-Nav (meaning "right"-"manifested"-"unmanifested", but called with different names by different groups), namely the world of bright gods, the world of mankind, and the world of dark gods.  The usage of this term suggests that the religion is restricted to a particular ethnic group. , Many Rodnovers consciously and actively reject Christianity and the Abrahamic monotheisms, regarded as destructive forces which erode organic communities, with Christianity being perceived as a foreign entity within Slavic culture. It is a symbol, also, of protection. As the personification of wind, Stribog was often symbolically invited inside the home, or to meals, due to wind being associated with the distribution of wealth or riches. For this reason, the symbol represents wealth.  Other modern literary works that have influenced the movement, albeit on a smaller scale, include The Songs of the Bird Gamayon, Koliada's Book of Stars, The Song of the Victory on Jewish Khazaria by Svyatoslav the Brave or The Rigveda of Kiev. Pagans in general in CK3 use lots of different pagan symbols. Slavic Traditions & Mythology. Triskele. Common Wiccan symbols in use in the religion today include: Moon symbols The Horned God The Trinity Knot The Witch's Charm The Ankh The Elven Star The Pentagram Each of these symbols has.  The movement also involved a significant number of people who had a background in the Soviet or Russian Army, or in policing and security.  For instance, in 2002 Serbian Rodnovers established Svevlad, a research group devoted to historical Slavic religion which simulated academic discourse but was "highly selective, unsystematic, and distorted" in its examination of the evidence. , There are various Watsdin organisations in North OssetiaAlania affiliated with Scythian Assianism, including the Atst organisation led by Daurbek Makeyev. , The scholar Anna-Marie Dostlov documented in 2013 that the entire Pagan community in the Czech Republic, including Slavic Rodnovers as well as other Pagan religions, was small. , A key influence on the movement was the circulation of the Book of Veles among Russian and Ukrainian emigrees. Semargl is a chimerical creature in the Slavic mythology, often depicted as a lion or large dog with wings.  Simpson observed that in the country, Rodnovers were "still relatively young", and saw an overlap with the community of historical re-enactors. Aitamurto characterises the veche as a model of organisation "from below and to the top", following descriptions given by Rodnovers themselvesthat is to say a grassroots form of governance which matures into a consensual authority and/or decision-making.  Aitamurto and Gaidukov noted that "hardly any women" in Russian Rodnovery would call themselves feminists, partly due to Rodnover beliefs on gender and partly due to the negative associations that the word "feminism" has in Russian culture. She is the goddess of death, rebirth, rural places and young plants.  Rodnovery typically emphasises the rights of the collective over the rights of the individual, and their moral values are the conservative values typical of the right-wing of politics: emphasis on patriarchy and traditional family.  They consider the Abrahamic religions and their later secular ideological productionsMarxism, capitalism, the general Western rationalism begotten by the Age of Enlightenment, and ultimately the technocratic civilisation based on the idea of possession, exploitation and consumption of the environmentas "mono-ideologies", that is to say ideologies which promote "universal and one-dimensional truths", unable to grasp the complexity of reality and therefore doomed to failure one after the other.  There are groups that espouse positions of cultural nationalism and patriotism, rather than extreme ethnic nationalism and racism. In religious terms, it is in the guise of "Russian National Socialism" by Alexey Dobrovolsky (Dobroslav); in historiographical terms, it is the desire to demonstrate the "glorious Aryan past of the Rus"; in political terms, it is the slow transfer of "Aryan" allusions from the environment of extremist nationalist parties of the ultra-right wing to the political tools of more moderate groups (for example, the Party of Spiritual Vedic Socialism of Vladimir Danilov).  Yet, they espouse Russian nationalism, ancestrality and ecology, and oppose Christianity (but not folk Orthodoxy, which is regarded as a continuation of Russian indigenous religion) and the Western "technocratic civilisation". The Rarg, in Slavic mythology and legend, is a fire demon.  The Orthodox Christian Old Believers, a movement that split out from the Russian Orthodox Church during the reform of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow in the seventeenth century, is seen by Rodnovers in a more positive light than the mainstream Russian Orthodox Church, as Old Believers are considered to have elements similar to those of the Slavic Native Faith..  A Sylenkoite centre, the Temple of Mother Ukraine, was established in Spring Glen, New York.  In 2011, the Circle of Svarog (Svaroi Krug) was founded in Bosnia. , Many other Rodnovers deny or downplay the racist and Nazi elements within their community, and claim that extreme right-wingers are not true believers in Slavic Native Faith because their interests in the movement are primarily political rather than religious. , The founder Aleksandr Belov (Selidor) was originally a Karate master, and in the 1970s and 1980s he began researching and reviving ancient Slavic martial techniques mixing them with elements of English catch wrestling and other styles, codifying the practice in the book Slavic-Hill Wrestling and popularising it by founding, in 1986, the group of the Descendants of Svarog (-, Svarozhychey-Tryverov), which in 1989 took part in the creation of the Moscow Slavic Pagan Community; in 1995 Belov left the group and the following year he established the Russian Federation of Slavic-Hill Wrestling, which was officially registered by the state in 2015 as the Association of Slavic-Hill Wrestling Fighters ( - ). He represents the changing of the seasons and the Koliada festival is held after the winter solstice. "Rodnovery" is a widely accepted self-descriptor within the community, although there are Rodnover organisations which further characterise the religion as Vedism, Orthodoxy, and Old Belief. Rodnover ethical thinking emphasises the good of the collective over the rights of the individual.  The goal of this esoteric system goes beyond that of other left-hand path traditions which stop at the deification of the individual; the goal of Veleslav's way is to strip the individual of any identity constructions through images and dreams of death and destruction, to reveal the individual's true essence, ultimately sacrifying its individual divinity, its names and forms, into the utmost spring of all divinity, the transcendent, primordial, unborn, unthinkable supreme source. The statue remained in place for some time until being removed by the authorities in 2007 when a decision was made to construct a church nearby.  He claimed that in 1934 he underwent a spiritual revelation atop Mount Grekhit in the Carpathian Mountains. Prestige is not limited to male priests; a priestess, Halyna Lozko from Ukraine, is an acknowledged authority within the Rodnover movement, and the settlement of Pravovedi in Kolomna is governed by a priestess. In 1999, the communities of Moscow and Obninsk left it as they refuted nationalism, and established another umbrella organisation, the Circle of Veles led by Ilya Cherkasov (volkhv Veleslav), which is one of the largest and administers communities also located in the territory of Ukraine. His name, sometimes styled as Jarilo, comes from the Russian for bright or bright lord. Yarilo represents youth and rebirth.  The Anastasians also celebrate the Day of the Earth on July 23 with characteristic rituals prescribed in their movement's books.  The scholar Elena Golovneva described Ynglist ideas as "far from being marginal" within Russian Rodnovery. One of the earliest exponents of Russian Rodnovery, Moscow State University-graduated psychologist Grigory Yakutovsky (1955, known as a shaman by the name Vseslav Svyatozar), asserted that ancient Slavic religion was fundamentally shamanic, and Siberian shamanism plays a central role in his doctrines.  Shizhenskii and Aitamurto described one Kupala festival, held over the course of three days outside Maloyaroslavets in Russia; at this event, weddings, purification rituals, and name-giving ceremonies took place, accompanied by musical performances, martial arts, and folkloric plays, while a market sold traditional handicrafts.  Native Ukrainian National Faith congregations were established among Ukrainian emigree communities in other parts of the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and Germany. , Rodnovery is headed by a priestly class distinguishable into the orders of volkhv (translatable as "wiseman", "wizard", i.e. The movement has its headquarters in eastern Ukraine, the region of origin of Ivanov himself, and it is widespread in Russia. The symbol of Rod is a circle containing a rose with six petals reaching out towards the edges. In Slavic mythology, Dazhbog is the sun god. In Slavic mythology, Rod separated the physical world from the spiritual world. , Espousing a holistic worldview that does not create a dichotomy between mind and body, many Rodnover groups employ physical techniques, or martial arts, as means for cleaning, strengthening and elevating the mind. It is likely that the English word calendar is derived from this symbol name.  The two groups, respectively renamed "Kin of Yarovit" and "Kin of Mokosh", merged in 2000 to form the Commonwealth of Native Faith (Spoleenstv Rodn Vra). In 2014, the Russian government officially registered the Union of Slavic Native Belief Communities as an interregional public organisation for the promotion of Slavic culture.  Some Rodnovers consider the Slavs to have a messianic role in human history and eschatology, for instance believing that Ukraine and Russia will be the world's future geopolitical centre, or the cradle of a new civilisation which will survive the demise of the Western world.  It means "Native Faith" and it is the name used by the majority of the movement's adherents. He is likely to have been the highest ranking god in the Slavic tradition, similar to Zeus in Ancient Greek mythology. 25.03.2010", " ( )", "Paganos de Rodnovery tambin participan en el conflicto ucraniano", "Locked up in the Donbas A look at the mass arrests and torture of civilians in Donetsk and Lugansk", "Some in Donbas who want to create a new 'Russian world' are reaching back to pre-Christian times", "Sprawozdanie z III Oglnopolskiego Zjazdu Rodzimowiercw", " : ", All-Russia Population Census 2010 ( 2010), " : ", "Eestis registreeritud usulised hendused", "Vernacular Beliefs and Official Traditional Religion", " ' ', " '': ' ', " ", "The Three-Headed One at the Crossroad: A Comparative Study of the Slavic God Triglav", "Scythian Neo-Paganism in the Caucasus: The Ossetian Uatsdin as a 'Nature Religion', "Olav's Rose, Perun's Mark, Taranis's Wheel", " ' ' ( )", "Saving the Native Faith: Religious Nationalism in Slavic Neo-paganism (Ancient Russian Yngling Church of Orthodox Old Believers-Ynglings and Svarozhichi)", " ", " Ultima Frontiera : ", Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, "In Search of Deeper Identities: Neopaganism and 'Native Faith' in Contemporary Ukraine", " - ' ' ", " ", "A Preliminary Quantitative Study of the Mysticism and Religious Maturity of Contemporary Slavic Neopagans in Poland", " ", " ", " : ", "Alternative Identity, Alternative Religion?  The North Caucasian Scythian Regional Fire is a Scythian Rodnover organisation in the North Caucasus region of Russia and eastern Ukraine that operates under the aegis of the Ancestral Fire of the Native Orthodox Faith. History . , The appropriate name of the religion is an acute topic of discussion among believers.  Kosnik and Hornowska observed that despite being young, Polish Rodnovers were spiritually mature and had joined the religion as it satisfied deep personal needs. , Some Slovenian practitioners use the Slovenian language term ajd, which is a loan-word of the Germanic-language heathen.  A festival that is believed to be the most important by many Rodnovers is that of the summer solstice, the Kupala Night (June 2324), although also important are the winter solstice festival Karachun and Koliada (December 2425), and the spring equinox festival Shrovetidecalled Komoeditsa or Maslenitsa (March 24). The earliest form of Cyrillic manuscript, known as Ustav, was based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and by letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek. Radegast is the Slavic god of strength, honor and hospitality.  Despite the animosity that existed between these rival Ukrainian groups, there was some collaboration between them.  A similar view is espoused by Russian Ynglism, while another distinctively monotheistic Rodnover movement that has been compared to Sylenkoism is Russian Kandybaism. Finally, the Trojan symbol may be said to connote the three dimensions of time: past, present and future. The Slavic Font has been designed following the typical proportions of the Ustav alphabet (Uncial), translating the calligraphic letters into modern types that still keep the calligraphy effect but in more geometrical harmony.  Similarly, the Polish philosopher Bronisaw Trentowski (18081869) saw the historical religion of the Slavs as a true path to understanding the divine creator, arguing that Christianity failed to do so.  In other words, fleeing from the commitment towards the forces at play in the present context is the same as a denial of the gods; it disrupts morality, impairing the individual, society and the world itself. The Triquetra is a popular witchcraft symbol for those who walk a Celtic path and represents the power of land, sea and sky. On the same occasion, they once again expressed disapproval for some authors and movements, including the large Skhoron ezh Sloven, which is also present in Belarus and Ukraine.  In 2002, six Russian Rodnover organisations issued the "Bittsa Appeal" (Bittsevskoe Obraschchenie), in which, among the many topics discussed, they expressed the view that "Rodnovery" should be regarded as the foremost name of the religion. pertaining "to the gens", "to the kin"), which in turn it itself renders in Slavic translations of the Bible. There, he established the Order of the Knights of the Solar God (Orden Lytsariv Boha Sontsia), a religio-political group that he hoped would affiliate itself to the Ukrainian Insurgent Army during the Second World War.  It is within this broader milieu of cultural nationalism and interest in alternative spiritualities that Rodnovery re-emerged in Ukraine. Equally far from stock images of witchcraft is a military recruit who, in the mid-eighteenth century, at the acme of the Enlightenment, offered to assist the Russian imperial authorities with a bit of herbal magic that would "cover the Prussian king and his entire army with fog and release water and capture the king alive." , In crafting their beliefs and practices, Rodnovers adopt elements from recorded folk culture, including from the ethnographic record of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.  Sylenko was originally a disciple of Volodymyr Shaian, but by the 1970s the two had taken different paths, as Sylenko had begun to elaborate his own reformed systematic doctrine, codified in the holy book titled Maha Vira ("Great Faith"). Dobroslav's follower A. M. Aratov, director of the Russkaya Pravda publishing house, wrote about the onset of the Russian Era and the imminent end of Christianity and Judaism.  He borrows from various Eastern traditions, including Hinduism (Tantrism), Buddhism and Taoism, but also Western Neoplatonism, Hermeticism and alchemy, as well as the medieval German mysticism of the Friends of God (Meister Eckhart and Johannes Tauler). , Rituals take place at consecrated places and generally include the lighting of fire (vozzhiganie ognia), invocation of gods, the singing of hymns, sacrifices (prinesenie treby) and the pouring of libations, circle-dances (khorovod or simply kolo, "circle"), and usually a communal meal at the end.  When using English language terms to describe their religion, some Rodnovers favour "Heathen", in part due to a perceived affinity with the contemporary Germanic Heathens who also commonly use that term.  They also characterise it as a new religious movement.  Another supporter of the book was the Ukrainian entomologist Sergey Paramonov (also known as Sergey Lesnoy; 18981968); he was the one who in 1957 coined the name Book of Veles for the Isenbek text and also named velesovitsa the writing system in which it was allegedly written.  In 1996, the non-compound form was adopted by a Polish group, the Association of Native Faith (Zrzeszenie Rodzimej Wiary) and in 1997 by the Russian Union of Slavic Native Belief Communities ( ) led by Vadim Kazakov, while the portmanteau Rodnoverie was widely popularised in Russia by volkhv Veleslav (Ilya G. Cherkasov) by 1999.  Sylenko was a charismatic leader, and his followers praised his talents and oratorial skills.  There are Rodnovers with extreme right-wing nationalist views, including those who are Neo-Nazi and openly inspired by Nazi Germany. , Sylenko proclaimed himself a prophet, bringing to the Slavs a new understanding of God that, according to him, corresponds to their own and original understanding of God.  Rodna or rodnaya is itself a concept which can denote the "nearest and dearest", and such impersonal community as one's native home or land.  Some polytheist Rodnovers have deemed the view adopted by Sylenko's followers as an inauthentic approach to the religion.  Established Ukrainian Orthodox and Roman Catholic groups have viewed it with alarm and hostility, while the country's educated and intellectual classes tend to view it as a fringe part of the ultra-conservative movement which was tinged with anti-Semitism and xenophobia.  Triglav and Svetovid ("Worldseer") are concepts representing the axis mundi and, respectively, the three qualities of reality and their realisation in the four dimensions of space. Koliada Viatichey is theologically dualistic, giving prominence to the complementary principles of Belobog and Chernobog, respectively governing spirit and matter, a polar duality which reflects itself in humanity as the soul and the body. In the mid 2000s Rodn Vra was legally registered by the Czech government, but internal disagreements culminated with its unregistration in 2010 and transformation into an informal association. The Proto-Slavic reconstruction is *dadjbog, and is composed of *dadj, imperative of the verb *dati "to give", and the noun *bog "god". It connects the feminine energy to the lunar cycle, the menstrual periods, and brings to women health, fertility and protection from conspicuous eyes and evil spirits.  In Moscow, the occult Yuzhinsky Circle had been established by the poet Yevgeny Golovin, the novelist Yury Mamleyev and the philosopher Vladimir Stepanov in the 1960s, while a young Alexander Dugin would have joined the circle in the 1980s; although not explicitly Pagan, they were influenced by occult Pagan thinkers like Guido von List and sought a return to a pre-Christian Aryan world.  In the Russian and Ukrainian centres of Rodnover theology, the concept of Rod has been emphasised as particularly important. The Belobog symbol represents light, goodness, well-being and happiness (the white god). In Yakutovsky's Rodnovery, male gods are secondary in importance compared to goddesses, and he claims that this was typical of ancient Slavic religion, which according to him was matriarchal. it represents strength, dignity, sun and fire and is a symbol of secular as well as spiritual power.  Because of its "open" nature, Rodnovery also hosts in itself denominations which have developed clear doctrines around an authoritarian charismatic leadership. , Rodnovery generally emphasises a healthy lifestyle of the individual, to be extended as a healthy lifestyle of the nation; restriction of food intake, avoidance of certain foods, and sport activities, timed to significant events or holidays, have acquired a ritual character for many Rodnover groups.  Many Rodnovers believe in casteism, the idea that people are born to fulfill a precise role and business in society; the Hindu varna system with its three castes priests, warriors and peasants-merchants is taken as a model, although in Rodnovery it is conceived as an open system rather than a hereditary one. , According to Rodover cosmology: the top of the staff of the volkhv represents the overworld, Prav, and is either carved as an anthropomorphic face representing the patron deity of the volkhv, or as the symbol of Rod, and is associated with Rod itself, the "God of the gods", representing the unity of the generated gods in the universal Rod, or with his visible manifestation, Svarog; the middle part of the staff represents Yav and Perun, and is carved with the symbols of the powers that the volkhv "commands" in the real world; the bottom of the staff represents Nav and Veles, and is burnt in fire to symbolise the infernal forces of the underworld.  In Russia, Rodnovers have vandalised and torched various churches. Add to Favorites Kolovrat Leather Keychain - Slavic Mythology Sun God Svarog Symbol leather metal T keychain - FREE shippng - snis.  Rodnovery is also spread through a variety of newspapers and journals. , Ivakhiv noted that Rodnovery remains "a relatively small niche in Ukrainian religious culture", and that it faces a mixed reception in the country. The religion is patriarchal, and attitudes towards sex and gender are generally conservative. sunwise, rightwise) in those rituals dedicated to the gods of Prav (overworld), or counterclockwise (protivosolon, i.e.  In this way, Slavic Native Faith has been understoodat least in partas an invented tradition, or a form of Folklorismus. She lives in the underworld with her counterpart, who is .  The Russian volkhv Velimir (Nikolay Speransky), emphasises a dualistic eternal struggle between white gods and black gods, elder forces of creation and younger forces of destruction; the former collectively represented by Belobog and the latter by Chernobog, also symbolising the spiritual and the material. Rodnover theology and cosmology may be described as pantheism and polytheismworship of the supreme God of the universe and worship of the multiple gods, the ancestors and the spirits of nature who are identified in Slavic culture. The Ossetians endonymously call the religion Watsdin (Ossetian Cyrillic: , literally "True Faith"), and practice it in large numbers. In doing so, pre-Christian belief systems underwent a rehabilitation. , Pantheons of deities are not unified among practitioners of Slavic Native Faith. As with the sun in the sky, he is symbolic of the triumph of light over darkness. He is a symbol of protection for sailors. Koliada is the God of the new year and of the rising of the new sun each day. These accoutrements represent four elements: water, earth, sun and air. ), represent the thunder god Perun or the supreme God (Rod), expressing itself as power of birth and reproduction, in its various forms (whether Triglav, Svetovid, Perun and other gods) and were still carved in folk traditions of the Russian North up to the nineteenth century.  Makeyev himself, in a 2007 publication entitled "Assianism and world culture" (Assianstvo i mirovaya kul'tura), presented the religion as a worldwide spiritual heritage. Alkonost, who gets her name from the Greek demigod Alyclone, is a creature with the body of a bird and the head of a woman. In recent times, the movement has been increasingly studied by academic scholars. It is believed that Slavic mythology can trace its roots back to the Proto-Indo European period, and perhaps as far back as the Neolithic era.The early Proto-Slav tribes split into groups, consisting of the East, West Slavs, and South Slavs.Each group created its own distinct set of localized mythologies, deities, and rituals based upon the beliefs and legends of the original Proto .  The original federation of Belov splintered many times over the years giving rise to other distinct groups of military Rodnovery; Belov, however, continued to remain a central figure for the movement as a whole. Slavs are the largest ethnic group in Europe that share a linguistic and cultural history. Slavic symbols originate from Northern Europe and Eurasia. The future, in his opinion, belongs to the Eurasian association of peoples, based on the common "Aryan doctrine".  Circle-dances may be clockwise (posolon, i.e.  For many Rodnovers, greater importance is given to the construction of "authentic" Slavic rituals rather than psychologically empowering practices.