what did toussaint l ouverture prefer before using violence quizlet

Rigaud was part of the free colored elite that resented the growing power of former slaves such as L'Ouverture. In August 1791 the monarchs of Austria and Prussia issued the Declaration of Pillnitz, which professed their willingness to intervene in France to restore Louis XVI's rule if necessary. By abolishing all barriers to free trade within France Peasants It created permanent standing armies. Why did Andr Rigaud resent the rise of Toussaint L'Ouverture in Saint-Domingue? Toussaint refused to let the military tribunal even try Moyse. He was also known as Toussaint Breda. What is the pros and cons of nationalism? Example of Autocratic Leader. Women lost many of the gains they made in the 1790s and were regarded as dependents of males. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1pv89b9.10. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like What was the ultimate fate of Toussaint L'Ouverture, leader of the revolt in Saint-Domingue?, What did the National Convention of France initially hope to gain by granting freedom to the slaves of Saint-Domingue?, Prior to the meeting of France's Estates General in 1789, what group demanded changes to voting procedures? How did the whites react? Women played an important role in the revolutions in Europe and the Atlantic world, but in the case of both revolutions, formal political rights were limited to men. Who won the fight against the Spanish army and Hidalgo's army? [39] Example 1. Creating a continental union of the former Spanish colonies. How did the Napoleonic Code affect the rights of women in French society when it was issued in 1804? Why did the parlements of France oppose raising taxes to pay for the Seven Years' War? Toussaint incorporates freedom and equality into constitution. Wiki User. They promised to amend the Constitution to include a Bill of Rights. Kris Cut 1000 To 1 Instagram. See answer (1) Best Answer. At first it was thought he would be the successor, and the whites decided that if Mose ever ruled they would leave.[1], Moyse was one of the most ardent leaders of the first uprising in 1791. It guaranteed their lands would not be taken without consent. how far reform should go. The Haitian Revolution was influenced by the American Revolution. The Convention formed the Committee of Public Safety in April 1793 to deal with threats both from within and outside France; the committee held dictatorial power to deal with the national emergency, allowing it to use whatever force necessary to defend the Revolution. He died, according to letters from Besanon, in prison, a few days ago. Which group was at the forefront of independence movements in Spanish America and in Portuguese America? What goal did rebels in Haiti achieve in 1798? Traditionally the nobles of France, who dominated the parlements, were exempt from taxes. What did eighteenth-century reformers believe about the rule of monarchs? Toussaint Louverture. In the 1763 Treaty of Paris, Britain acquired Canada, all French territory east of the Mississippi, France's colonies in India, and Florida. As Spain's control over its Latin American colonies diminished, foreign traders, especially from the United States, swarmed into Spanish-American ports. The French colonizers had been prepared for fear of an uprising, but this did not matter much. . Some assert that Moyses mother, Marie-Marthe, also known as Martine, was Toussaints illegitimate daughter with Cecile, a free person of color, which would make Moyse an illegitimate grandson of Toussaint. He died in a French prison. answer choices. When you finish, evaluate your use of the strategies. the definitions of critical lenses: Personal. Negative -extreme nationalism leads to war, no change: no voting, absolute monarchs rule (nobles, landowners), some change: educated vote, more power for Parliaments (middle class, merchants), drastic change: all people should vote, government should be full democracy (poor, workers), John Lund, Paul S. Vickery, P. Scott Corbett, Todd Pfannestiel, Volker Janssen, Eric Hinderaker, James A. Henretta, Rebecca Edwards, Robert O. Self, Donald Kagan, Frank M. Turner, Steven Ozment. The age of revolution was characterized by conflicts over how far reform should go; non-elites had a variety of demands, including political rights for women and free people of color, the emancipation of slaves, and government regulation to guarantee fair access to resources and to impose economic equality. Women lost many of the gains they made in the 1790s and were regarded as dependents of males. James, C. L. R. 1963. Amr Covid Testing Eastfield Mall Results, from viewers like you. [2] All agree that, regardless of biological connection, Toussaint LOuverture adopted Moyse as his nephew.[4]. WOODARD JOURNAL ISSUE 2, APRIL 2018. A system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by other people. What group or institution benefited from the August 1789 declaration by France's National Assembly that abolished nobles' privileges? The Haitian Revolution: A Documentary History. Describe the events surrounding the Iran-Contra affair and the consequences of the Iran-Contra affair for the Reagan administration. Use this quiz to see how well you can: Identify the conditions Louverture was born in. and enraged Napoleon. Start studying Toussaint-Louverture. Toussaint Louverture was a great liberator of slaves because he fought for his people. Creoles Did Moise want to seize only the main command of the colony? (2005, November 30). Donnadieu, Jean-Louis, and Philippe Girard. known to you. Monopolies, guilds, and workers' associations were prohibited, and barriers to trade within France were abolished in the name of economic liberty. As warfare commenced in the American Revolution, the colonists were especially incensed by the fact that the British. [4], Moyse began to register opposition to Louverture in response to Toussaints singular passing of the 1801 constitution in July, seen as a sign of despotism and cooperation with the French. Again, Toussaint proves how mature and decent he is: In the darkness, he thought about death because he knew that was what awaited him. Toussaint LOuverture Facts. How did Toussaint Louverture gain his freedom? [2] The revolution was widespread in the North and numbered at least 6,00 workers. Use the Active Reading Model notes in the margins to help you. They did not believe that equality between men and women was practical. How did the Federalists calm fears that the new federal government would take away individual freedoms? But the Jacobins themselves were increasingly divided into two bitterly opposed groupsthe Girondists and the Mountain, led by Robespierre and Georges Jacques Danton. Cultivation in his district suffered, and Toussaint sent observers to watch his administration and listen to the criticisms Mose indiscreetly made of Toussaints policy toward the whites. Women lost many of the gains they made in the 1790s under the Napoleonic Code; instead, they were regarded as dependents of a male relative and were barred from making contracts or having bank accounts in their own name. A dissatisfaction with Toussaints social and economic conservatism undergirded the revolt. What was a consequence of Napoleon's Grand Empire? A leader in the Haitian Slave Revolt. 2014. Most of the island's enslaved population performed grueling toil in the island's sugar plantations. He was legally freed in 1776 and began to channel his energies toward freeing his fellow blacks. The revolution Toussaint led is said to have been an inspiration to abolitionists such as John Brown, who attempted a violent overthrow of the American system of slavery, and to many Africans who fought for independence for their countries in the mid-20th century. On the night of August 21, 1791, the barrels exploded. Subjects. Various sources have given birth dates between What problem confronted the French in Haiti after the publication of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen in 1789? The treaty ratified British victory on all fronts. An anonymous witness to the events observed: Quel tait le but de ce mouvement. This goal was only momentarily achieved, however, as both the United States of Venezuela and the republic of Gran Columbia quickly splintered. Security of property and wealth [2], Toussaint wrote of the affair and Moyse in 1798 Soon I learn that the evil is spreading in all the Communes, that the People are asking their Magistrates for the removal of General Hedouville, the report of the Order which forces him to enlist, the restoration of General Moyse in all his rights, the freedom of the officers of the 5th Regiment, taken prisoner in the affair of Fort-Libert, and revenge for the assassinations which had been committed there. Which of the following statements is true about the majority of slaves who made their way from Africa to Haiti in the late eighteenth century? And in Toussaint's mind, that meant one thing. PBS Egalite for All: Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian Revolution (2009) I am Toussaint Louverture. . Soldiers to fight against Britain and Spain. 2004. Who led the army that defeated Spain in Peru? Furthermore, Toussaint was becoming increasingly more amenable to foreign white presence in Haiti, which signified the subjugation of the Black agricultural class. On November 9, 1799, they ousted the Directors and disbanded the legislature. Trinidadian historian C.L.R. A Black Jacobin in the Age of Revolutions. Home. Why did Toussaint L'Ouverture write a letter to the conservative French Directory (later overthrown by Napoleon)? When news of this legislation reached Saint-Domingue, the white population was furious and the colonial governor refused to enact it. What agreement reached in 1801 resolved long-standing tensions between the Catholic Church and France? all citizens. . Best Answer. Who proclaimed Brazil's independence from Portuguese control? Indianapolis, UNITED STATES: Hackett Publishing Company, Incorporated. 1798. and the Haitian Revolution. Desire to protect ancient rights Tags: Topics: Question 2 . On June 20 the delegates of the third estate pledged not to disband until they had been recognized as a national assembly and had written a new constitution. What did the National Convention abolish in the French colonies in 1794? It granted political rights to free people of color who were born of free parents and held sufficient property. What assertion was made in the Declaration of Pillnitz, issued in 1791? Influence over a government's leadership, organization, or policies. Their leader, Toussaint l'Ouverture, established relations with the United States and Britain. The rebels reportedly shouted phrases like Death to whites! and General Moyse is on our side!. Signup for our newsletter to get notified about our next ride. In 1794, the French banished all slavery in Saint Domingue. They were afraid of the royal army massing near Paris. Toussaint Louverture was not somebody who liked violence, really. Ou peut tre est aujourdhui le secret du gnral Toussaint qui na pas permis que son procs lui fut rgulirement fait, et a voulu quil fut condamn sans tre entendu[8] Europeans brought with them not only a long history of using violence to subdue their internal and external foes but also missionary zeal to spread the benefits of their own civilization to others, while reaping the rewards of empire. In 1793, Toussaint Louverture made an army of 4,000 troops to fight against the French. Spread of Enlightenment, French Revolution, Declaration of Rights of Man. Toussaint Louverture, 1743?-1803 and France. Law What was the ultimate fate of Toussaint L'Ouverture, leader of the revolt in Saint-Domingue? Directoire excutif. He took issue with Toussaints refusal to break up large estates and wanted small land grants for soldiers and farmers. 11. The fate of this man has been singularly unfortunate, and his treatment most cruel. Toussaint Louverture: The Story of the Only Successful Slave Revolt in History is a three-act play about Toussaint L'Ouverture, the leader of the Haitian Revolution (21 August 1791 - 1 January 1804), written by C. L. R. James in 1934. He was against it and did not participate. Louverture did not live to see the proclamation of the Haitian republic the following year. Toussaint L'Ouverture was a French general, but instead for France, he fought for Haiti and its people, leading the Haitian Revolution against the French. Choose a robust theme statement that identifies a theme in Death of a Salesman , its significance, and evidence for it. How did the Venezuelan declaration reflect the unique circumstances that existed there? One emphasized vengeful African slaves committing unspeakable acts of violence against white men, women, and children. What was the ultimate fate of Toussaint L'Ouverture, leader of the revolt in Saint-Domingue? The work of Toussaint, Dessalines, Christophe, and Ption endures in Hayti [Haiti], but what they did went far, far Slaves Mexico Haiti France 2. In each of the following sentences, underline the word or word group in parentheses that is correct according to standard, formal English usage. Why did the French monarchy support the liberal American Revolution? Shop the Black Friday Sale: Get 50% off Quizlet Plus through Monday Learn more Toussaint LOuverture Facts. When he did this he was a black man . How many people did Toussaint Louverture recruit? Which of the following statements describes Napoleon's domestic policy after taking power in France? The other part stayed behind to fight and were hurt or killed on the battlefield. Farmers were particularly disturbed by Toussaints political and economic policies, which signified a return to the plantation system. The Purposes of Art People created art to record ideas and feelings long before they had written words. "The Black Jacobins. 18. In the mid-1790s the British, who were at war with France, invaded and seized the colony, and an army of formerly enslaved people eventually drove out the British. LOuverture ends the letter with a threat: those who spread sedition will either be killed or enslaved for six months. http://archive.org/details/rapport00tous. The fate of this man has been singularly unfortunate, and his treatment most cruel. Toussaint was away at the wedding of Dessalines when Moyse struck. Historical Evidence Collection #1. Why was the Committee of Public Safety formed during the French Revolution of 1793? Download the app to get started. It was led by two priests, poor Creoles, and indigenous peasants. Accessed April 26, 2022. https://oxfordaasc.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195301731.001.0001/acref-9780195301731-e-74390. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Toussaint L'Ouverture was betrayed by French General Jean-Baptiste Brunet who lured Toussaint L'Ouverture into a trap under the pretense of. What was the legal theory of slavery in the American colonies by the late eighteenth century? Write a paragraph describing the Iran-Contra affair. That it should be constrained by the will of the people, John Locke believed that a government should, In the Tennis Court Oath, the delegates of the third estate pledged to not disband until they had been recognized as a national assembly and had. Failure to do so reinforced the conviction that these people were uncivilized heathens (non-Christians). 13. 12. The other was the story of an enslaved people who, under the leadership of Louverture, vanquished their oppressors in an effort to eradicate slavery and build a new nation. To address threats to France from within and without Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. Write your comments and questions on a sheet of paper. In 1791, a slave revolt started in the northern province. What two nations were fighting for control of the island? HIs 105 Chapter 31 Decolonization, Revolution, John Lund, Paul S. Vickery, P. Scott Corbett, Todd Pfannestiel, Volker Janssen, Eric Hinderaker, James A. Henretta, Rebecca Edwards, Robert O. Self. How did Toussaint L'Ouverture respond to Spain's entry into the slave revolt on Saint-Domingue in 1793? He became known as Toussaint L'Ouverture (the one who finds an opening) and brilliantly led his rag-tag slave army. . (Document c) have consequences. Dessailines defeats the French Army and creates the nation of Haiti. How can France be described politically under Napoleon? known to you. At the end of a frantic period known as the Hundred Days, they crushed his forces at Waterloo on June 18, 1815. Only if France ends slavery in Saint Domingue, The French capture him and put him in a prison in the French Alps. Creoles unite with Mestizos and Indians, General Agustin Iturbide and declared Mexican Independence. 1774-1776. Toussaint L'Ouverture was arrested by Napoleon's brother-in-law, who had him transported to France, where he died in prison. Why did civil war break out in Saint-Domingue in 1799? He led enslaved people to overthrow the colonialists and establish an independent country. They fled to Rio de Janeiro in the Portuguese colony of Brazil. His military and political influence were key in the first black insurrection (1791). TikTok - trends start here. Your essay will be 1000-1500 words using two critical lenses to analyze how the concept of resilience. To strengthen colonial rule, the Spanish crown created a permanent standing army and enlarged colonial militias. His military and political influence were key in the first black insurrection (1791). When a slave revolt broke out in 1791, Toussaint formed a guerrilla army. Why did the Mountain faction side with the sans-culottes in the National Convention of the French Revolution? Because the Seven Years' War left Britain with high debts, Britain broke with tradition and decided to keep a standing army in the colonies and to levy the Stamp Act of 1765, a tax on documents, to pay for that army. Led by former slave Toussaint L'Ouverture, the revolutionaries had taken control of a third of the island by 1792. The French Revolution and Napoleonic wars, which involved France's occupation of Spain and Britain's domination of the seas, isolated Spain from Latin America. From that point forward in the Revolution, peasants were determined to protect and consolidate this victory. Third estate Copy. About Moyse, he wrote Instead of listening to the advice of a father, and obeying the orders of a leader devoted to the well-being of the colony, he wanted only to be ruled by his passions and follow his fatal inclinations: he has met with a wretched end.[2] In the proclamation, Toussaint repudiates those who participated in the rebellion for their immorality. Toussaint names himself dictator for life. In 1794, what happened to the slaves that fought the armies of Britain & Spain? L'Ouverture is still celebrated for his role in creating the country of Haiti. What effect, if any, did the growing economy of the eighteenth century have on the distinctions between urban merchants and the landed aristocracy? 2011-01-01 19:45:42. Franois-Dominique Toussaint Louverture (9 May 1743 - 7 April 1803), also known as Toussaint L'Ouverture or Toussaint Brda, was the best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution. The work of Toussaint, Dessalines, Christophe, and Ption endures in Hayti [Haiti], but what they did went far, far Toussaint Louverture was a great liberator of slaves because he fought for his people. Which European state was the first to revolt against Napoleon's rule? 2. All slaves were freed. Plantation owners fought this decision, and the rights were later taken away. Biblioteca personale. [2] The insurrection was crushed by the arrival of Toussaint with brutal Dessalines at his side and the capture of Moyse (James). Paris: Paul Ollendorf. [1] Under Toussaints plan to reconstruct the Haitian economy, the plantation was crucial. He knew that they could never truly take Haiti from him, because in death he would know those he had lost once again, would speak with them and hold them again. The judicial nobility Toussaint Louverture was not somebody who liked violence, really. What motivated Spain in the eighteenth century to increase prices in its American colonies on items for which the Crown had a monopoly? Forewords _____ Helen Keller once said that a well-educated mind will always have more questions than an-swers. Today questioning is a highly valued skill in the world. Toussaint L'Ouverture (c. 1743-1803) was the leader of the Haitian Revolution. Haitian Revolution. After whites refused to end slavery in Saint Domingue, thousands of plantations were burned and thousands of whites and mixed race people were killed. When Napoleonic forces invaded Portugal, what happened to the Portuguese royal family? [6], Whatever my old uncle may do, I cannot bring myself to be the executioner of my colour. Explain the relationships, taking into account both social pressures of post-war, It is time to demonstrate your knowledge of literary lenses by writing a critical analysis essay. Toussaint incorporates freedom and equality into constitution. Moyse and the black laborers organized another insurrection. How did the Venezuelan declaration reflect the unique circumstances that existed there? [3] Moyse was an influential general under Toussaint during the revolution. Creating a continental union of the former Spanish colonies Which Haitian revolutionary was the first to demand political rights for all free citizens? Toussaint L'Ouverture started his military career as a leader of the 1791 slave rebellion in Saint-Domingue, which was a French colony.When he did this he was a free black man (not a slave). [7] They primarily targeted white property owners, and by the end of the uprising, there were nearly 250 European victims. What action by Tsar Alexander I gave Napoleon an excuse to attack Russia in 1812? Why did the Directory continue to support France's military expansion? Although Louvertures arrest began a period of French control on the island, the French victory was short-lived. One week of prison. They planned to massacre the whites, overthrow Toussaint, and place Moyse in power, proving that the black working-class allegiance to Toussaint was only as strong as Toussaints allegiance to their emancipation. Slave revolts from this time normally ended in executions and failure this story is the exception. what did toussaint l ouverture prefer before using violence quizletmartin lipton daughtermartin lipton daughter Read another short story using appropriate Active Reading Strategies. What role did region play in the Pagan kingdom and Khmer empire? Mixed African & European, low wage labor jobs. In telling the story of Toussaint Louverture, why should emphasis be placed on his role as ruler of Haiti? Prior to the meeting of France's Estates General in 1789, what group demanded changes to voting procedures? Study now. 2013. Report an issue . Toussaint was freed from slavery at around the age of 33 and colonial records show that he became a land and slave owner himself. Jr. Martin Luther King used non violence as a weapon to bring justice and equality to the segregated Black society of America. According to records, the print is correct in the pulling of her fingernails and other tortures. The Creoles stated that they were acting to defend the Catholic religion. French rule sparked patriotic upheavals and encouraged the growth of reactive nationalism within other European states. He stood high in Toussaints favour until he refused to carry out Toussaints severe labour legislation in the North. Defense of the colonies 17. [1], During the conflict at Fort-Dauphin in 1798, General Hedouville was sent as a French military agent of Haiti. This answer is: Helpful ( 0) Not Helpful ( Related Topics. By 1750, Europeans associated African ancestry with slavery and assumed that all slaves were African or of African descent. In Latin America these actions stimulated the production of crops that were in demand in Europe. After whites refused to end slavery in Saint Domingue, thousands of plantations were burned and thousands of whites and mixed race people were killed. 9.6.3 Test (TST)_ Imperialism, Nationalism, and Political Revolutions (1).pdf, MANJINDER_SINGH_-_126_Egalite_for_all_-_Toussaint_L_ouverture_and_the_Haitian_Revolution_Film_Questi, Young Women's Leadership Academy-Fort Worth, The Similarities and Differences of The Causes French and Haitian Revolution.docx, Copy of Egalite for all: Toussaint L_ouverture and the Haitian Revolution Film Questions, California Polytechnic State University, Pomona, RichardChear_Haitian Revolution Documentary guided questions (1).docx, how-should-we-remember-toussaint-louverture-ev_student_work (1).docx, The environmental sustainability movement encourages companies to A actively, In the case of salaries he should be Vouched with the salary book The auditor, 495 123 THE INTERPRETATION OF STATUTES A statute is defined to be the will of, 11 I By 1984 NASA the United States space program had carried out many, wickedwhimssexintegralroutinginteractions No module named wickedwhimssexintegral, comes to the conviction that subject to said measures the transaction will not, It remains to prove the assertions regarding a d Suppose C X c as We claim, QUESTION 5 Indicate when natural interruption of prescription will occur 1 when, Metaparadigm is a broad concept referring to the subject matter of greatest interest to a member of, 180 9172022 Feat 30 170 5252017 Duck 86 122 5122022 Echo 75 110 8122022 Fist 80, Name Importance Maximum Requests CPU Time sec Memory Grant Memory Grant Time out, Absolute threshold Maximum sound level required to detect a sound Relative, Understanding Primary Productivity.docx.pdf, Create the outline based on these requirements: using two critical lenses to analyze how the concept of resilience is addressed in Death of a Salesman . Toussaint L'Ouverture Toussaint L'Ouverture. In March 1936, the play was staged for two performances in the Westminster Theatre in London's West End by the Stage Society, a private club, to avoid Theatres . In his years of power, he worked to improve the economy and security of Saint Domingue. Toussaint L'ouverture was a leader in the Haitian independence movement during the French rev. Spain believed its Latin American colonies should pay for some of their own defense. Change the voting procedure to have all three estates meet as one body Which of the following was a problem the Constitutional Convention in 1787 attempted to fix? For the term or name, write a sentence explaining its connection to European history from 1300 to 1500. Refer to the map Loyalist Strength in the Colonies, ca. Even though Brazil remained a monarchy after independence, Creole elites dominated society as they did elsewhere in Latin America. Moyse was known for his bravery on the battlefield. Toussaint L'Ouverture, 28) The French General Rochambeau describes Toussaint in 1796 It gave the East India Company a monopoly. Napoleon, nationally revered for his heroism, was an ideal choice for the strong ruler the conspirators were seeking, so they and Napoleon organized a takeover. Louis-Napoleon (Napoleon's nephew) but he later became the emperor, he industrializes France and created jobs, helps Italians defeat Austria but loses to Prussia, people should unite based on their language, nationality or culture, Culture, history, language, territory, religion, and nationality. Which statement BEST describes Simon Bolivar? The indians made up most of Hidalgo's parish and they were treated harshly and had heavy taxes, he ruled for 18 years but then people were tired of the monarchy and then violence erupted in France. What did Toussaint L'ouverture get when he made the deal with the neighboring country? For this purpose, he saved 6 million francs, equivalent that sum in dollars now, which he entrusted to Stephen Girard, an American ship captain. Early Years . A leader in the Haitian Slave Revolt. Question 16. What did the free people of color in Saint-Domingue hope to gain from the French Revolution? As implemented by the American Constitution and Bill of Rights, classic liberalism assumed equality of which of the following? Haiti. Born into slavery on May 20, 1743 in the French colony of Saint Dominque, L'Ouverture was the eldest son of Gaou Guinon, an African prince who was captured by slave traders. Who called for a revolution against Spain? What change did Spain make to its rule in Latin America after the War of the Spanish Succession? We, therefore . Tags: Topics: Question 2 . They fled to Rio de Janeiro in the Portuguese colony of Brazil. Austria and Prussia threatened to intervene in France to restore Louis XVI's rule. What impact did the French Revolution have on Spain's Latin American colonies? This answer is: Unit 06: Egalite View Copy of Egalite for all: Toussaint L_ouverture and the Haitian Revolution Film Questions from HISTORY MISC at Matoaca High. C. L. R. James has stated that the success of the Haitian Revolution was almost entirely the result of the leadership of Toussaint LOuverture. Standing steadfastly, he fought to end slavery and gain Haiti's independence from European powers, France and Spain.Forming an army of former slaves and deserters from the French and Spanish armies, he . It was a mutilated Suzanne, a purely vegetative Suzanne, devoid of all her nails, with several broken bones, who returned to Jamaica where she died on May 19, 1846. 2003. In 1798, Haiti faced a full scale British invasion. What was Toussaint Louverture first reaction to the raging violence? Quiz & Worksheet Goals. The wars helped to alleviate domestic economic problems, including unemployment. president must shares power with the assembly, Monarchy abolished.

2022 Futa Tax Rates And Limits, Mayim Bialik Boyfriend, Yulee Primary School Staff, Another Broken Egg Pepper Sauce, Lewisville High School Basketball Coach, Articles W