sulla primary sources

[127] Sulla himself was defeated and forced to flee into his camp, but his lieutenant Crassus on the right wing won the battle in the night. [112] However, this and Sulla's delay in Asia are "not enough to absolve him of the charge of being more concerned with revenge on opponents in Italy than with Mithridates". Demanding transfer to Catulus' (Marius' consular colleague) army, he received it. [16] His father may have served as praetor, but details are unclear; his father married twice and Sulla' stepmother was of considerable wealth, which certainly helped the young Sulla's ambitions. [11], Sulla, the son of Lucius Cornelius Sulla and the grandson of Publius Cornelius Sulla,[12] was born into a branch of the patrician gens Cornelia, but his family had fallen to an impoverished condition at the time of his birth. Speeches, diaries, letters and interviews - what the people involved said or . His enemy, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, was elected consul for 87BC in place of his candidate;[83] his nephew was rejected as plebeian tribune while Marius' nephew was successful. [70][71] They were designed to regulate Rome's finances, which were in a very sorry state after all the years of continual warfare. Primary sources are contrasted with secondary sources, works that provide analysis, commentary, or criticism on the primary source. The later battle, at Orchomenus, was fought in high summer but before the start of the autumn rains. Beginning Research Activities Student activities designed to help . Sulla's body was cremated and his ashes placed in his tomb in the Campus Martius. Plutarch, writing much . He's remembered best for bringing his soldiers into Rome, the killing of Roman citizens, and his military skill in several areas. [23] The means by which Sulla attained the fortune which later would enable him to ascend the ladder of Roman politics are not clear; Plutarch refers to two inheritances, one from his stepmother (who loved him dearly) and the other from his mistress Nicopolis. 134/3 eagle's brood foretells the number of Marius' consulships. Also useful for understanding Sulla's career are the article by E. Baddian . Of those who contracted the bubonic plague, 4 out of 5 died within eight days. Updated on October 07, 2019. "[156], He was said to have a duality between being charming, easily approachable, and able to joke and cavort with the most simple of people, while also assuming a stern demeanor when he was leading armies and as dictator. After Sulla had recovered the government by force of arms, everybody became robbers and plunderers. He used his powers to purge his opponents, and reform Roman constitutional laws, to restore the primacy of the Senate and limit the power of the tribunes of the plebs. 45-120 CE) was a Platonist philosopher, best known to the general public as author of his "Parallel Lives" of paired Greek and Roman statesmen and military leaders.He was a voluminous writer, author also of a collection of "Moralia" or "Ethical Essays," mostly in dialogue format, many of them devoted to philosophical topics, not at all . His son, Faustus Cornelius Sulla, issued denarii bearing the name of the dictator,[151] as did a grandson, Quintus Pompeius Rufus. [44], His term as praetor was largely uneventful, excepting a public dispute with Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo (possibly his brother-in-law) and his magnificent holding of the ludi Apollinares. [88] Political violence in Rome continued even in Sulla's absence. They were, however, successful in holding Macedonia, then governed by propraetor Gaius Sentius and his legate Quintus Bruttius Sura. [66] Buttressed by success against Rome's traditional enemies, the Samnites, and general Roman victory across Italy, Sulla stood for and was elected easily to the consulship of 88BC; his colleague would be Quintus Pompeius Rufus. These two reforms were enacted primarily to allow Sulla to increase the size of the Senate from 300 to 600 senators. He was, however, defeated. Archelaus tried to break out but were unsuccessful; Sulla then annihilated the Pontic army and captured its camp. [18] Lacking ready money, Sulla spent his youth among Romes comedians, actors, lute players, and dancers. [108] Adding to his challenges was Lucullus' fleet, reinforced by Rhodian allies. [40], In 102BC, the invaders returned and moved to force the Alps. His family was patrician, part of the ruling class in ancient Rome. The hundreds of thousands of men who enlisted . Sulla then left for Capua before joining an army near Nola in southern Italy.[74]. aking of America (MoA) is a digital library of primary sources in American social history from the antebellum period through reconstruction. Sulla was born in a very turbulent era of Rome's history, which has often been described as the beginning of the fall of the Roman Republic.The political climate was marked by civil discord and rampant political violence where voting in the Assembly was . [100] The Pontic casualties given in Plutarch and Appian, the main sources for the battles, are exaggerated; Sulla's report that he suffered merely fifteen losses is not credible. Having exhausted available provisions near Athens, doing so was both necessary to ensure the survival of his army and also to relieve a brigade of six thousand men cut off in Thessaly. [146] An epitaph, which Sulla composed himself, was inscribed onto the tomb, reading, "No friend ever served me, and no enemy ever wronged me, whom I have not repaid in full. Possibly to protect himself from future political retribution, Sulla had the sons and grandsons of the proscribed banned from running for political office, a restriction not removed for over 30 years. The veto power of the tribunes and their legislating authority were soon reinstated, ironically during the consulships of Pompey and Crassus.[150]. [122] Marius, buttressed by Samnite support, fought a long and hard battle with Sulla at Sacriportus that resulted in defeat when five of his cohorts defected. Websites. As Sulla viewed the office, the tribunate was especially dangerous, and his intention was to not only deprive the Tribunate of power, but also of prestige (Sulla himself had been officially deprived of his eastern command through the underhanded activities of a tribune). Provides tips on how to read and use primary sources in historical research. The second was Lucius Cornelius Sulla, who died young. Scipio's men quickly abandoned him for Sulla; finding him almost alone in his camp, Sulla tried again to persuade Scipio to defect. [100], In the summer of 86BC, two major battles were fought in Boeotia. Examples include interview transcripts, statistical data, and works of art. [54] Various proposals to give the allies Roman citizenship over the decades had failed for various reasons, just as the allies also "became progressively more aware of the need to cease to be subjects and to share in the exercise of imperial power" by acquiring that citizenship. Marius was elected consul and, through assignment by tribunician legislation, took over the campaign. Publius Cornelius Rufinus, one of Sulla's ancestors and also the last member of his family to be consul, was banished from the Senate after having been caught possessing more than 10 pounds of silver plate. Tools for primary source analysis. He married again, with a woman called Aelia, of which nothing is known other than her name. to A.D. 68 (1959; 2d ed. The Roman military and political leader Sulla "Felix" (138-78 B.C.E.) [91], During close of the Social War, in 89BC, Mithridates VI Eupator of Pontus invaded Roman Asia. Marius arranged for Sulla to lift the iustitium and allow Sulpicius to bring proposals; Sulla, in a "desperately weak position [received] little in return[,] perhaps no more than a promise that Sulla's life would be safe". At the same time, Marius had annihilated the Cimbri's allies, the Teutones, at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae. National Library Services to Schools has developed a suite of primary source analysis tools specifically for Aotearoa New Zealand schools. Sulla's descendants continued to be prominent in Roman politics into the imperial period. onwards. Primary sources are most often produced around the time of the events you are studying. Se l'azienda ha pi di 200 dipendenti, deve essere presente anche il rappresentante sindacale aziendale (RSA). He was awarded the Grass Crown for his bravery at the Battle of Nola. For example: scholarly or popular books and articles, reference books, biographies, or textbooks. Historians and other scholars classify sources as primary or secondary. [106] Roman forces then surrounded the Pontic camp. Marius (C. Marius) - Roman consul, seven times from 107 B.C. Primary sources are first-hand evidence related to the time or event you are investigating.This includes accounts by participants or observers and a wide range of written, physical, audio or visual materials created at the time or later by someone with direct experience.. Pompey, the son of Pompey Strabo, raised a legion from his clients in Picenum and also joined Sulla; Sulla treated him with great respect and addressed him as imperator before dispatching him to raise more troops. National Archives Catalog Find online primary source materials for classroom & student projects from the National Archive's online catalog (OPA). The first of the, Pages displaying wikidata descriptions as a fallback, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBadian2012 (. Gill. He became a tribune of the plebeians in 52 BC where he gained a reputation for being a strong supporter of the populares. If the latter, he may have married into the Julii Caesares. The dictator is the subject of four Italian operas, two of which take considerable liberties with history: Sulla is a central character in the first three, Lucius Cornelius Sulla is also a character in the first book of the, His first wife was Ilia, according to Plutarch. Sulla also codified, and thus established definitively, the cursus honorum, which required an individual to reach a certain age and level of experience before running for any particular office. Social: Facebook Page YouTube Page Instagram Page. Sulla almost certainly received a normal education for his class, grounded in ancient Greek and Latin classics. [121], Fighting in 83BC began with reverses for Sulla's opponents: their governors in Africa and Sardinia were deposed. A book from 1877 England would be a primary source about Victorian history. By. Here are the names and relevant periods for some of the main ancient Latin and Greek sources for Roman history. Lucius other name: Sulla Details individual; military/naval; official; Roman; Male. [6] He also disbanded his legions and, through these gestures, attempted to show the re-establishment of normal consular government. Fimbria then committed suicide after a failed attempt on Sulla's life. Research Process and Acumen: Experience with primary sources can support future academic success. However, in some cases, paintings are considered secondary sources. be determined. [92] In the summer of 88, he reorganised the administration of the area before unsuccessfully besieging Rhodes. This mixture was later referred to by Machiavelli in his description of the ideal characteristics of a ruler. [52] He may have stayed in the east until 92BC, when he returned to Rome. However, this material may be located in a number of places including in the library, elsewhere on campus, or even online. Although he was able to regain the command, his political setup in Rome collapsed almost as soon as he left Italy, and the war would . These sieges lasted until spring of 86BC. His third wife was Cloelia, whom Sulla divorced due to sterility. After the battle, Marius withdrew to Praeneste and was there besieged. Athens itself was spared total destruction "in recognition of [its] glorious past" but the city was sacked. Even those whom Sulla had quarrelled with (including Publius Cornelius Cethegus, whom Sulla had outlawed in 88 BC) defected to join his side. You can limit HOLLIS searches to your time period, but sources may be published later, such as a person's diary published posthumously. A primary source (also called original . Sulla then prohibited ex-tribunes from ever holding any other office, so ambitious individuals would no longer seek election to the tribunate, since such an election would end their political career. N.S. [85], After the elections, Sulla forced the consuls designate to swear to uphold his laws. While Sulla's laws such as those concerning qualification for admittance to the Senate, reform of the legal system and regulations of governorships remained on Rome's statutes long into the principate, much of his legislation was repealed less than a decade after his death. However, if you were studying how compact fluorescent light bulbs are presented in the popular media, the magazine article could be considered a primary source. [87], Sulla's ability to use military force against his own countrymen was "in many ways a continuation of the Social War a civil war between former allies and friends developed into a civil war between citizens what was eroded in the process was the fundamental distinction between Romans and foreign enemies". Continuing towards Scipio's position at Teanum Sidicinum, Sulla negotiated and was almost able to convince Scipio to defect. Through Sulla's reforms to the Plebeian Council, tribunes lost the power to initiate legislation. A research article or study proving this would be a primary source. The Battle of Sacriportus occurred between the forces of Young Marius and the battle-hardened legions of Sulla. When it came to hiding his intentions, his mind was incredibly unfathomable, yet with all else he was extremely generous; especially with money. When the campaign in Italy started, two theatres emerged, with Sulla facing the younger Marius in the south and Metellus Pius facing Carbo in the north. They are now largely lost, although fragments from them exist as quotations in later writers. He had close connections to the imperial family and was the husband of Antonia, Claudius's daughter, and might thus have been seen as a threat to Nero. Marius, offering his services to Cinna, helped levy troops. An inscription on a sixteenth-century tombstone in Istanbul would be a primary source from the Classical Ottoman Age. [86] He then left Italy with his troops without delay, ignoring legal summons and taking over command from a legate in Macedonia. Identifying and locating primary sources can be challenging. Beyond personal enmity, Caesar Strabo may also have stood for office because it was evident that Rome's relations with the Pontic king, Mithridates VI Eupator, were deteriorating and that the consuls of 88 would be assigned an extremely lucrative and glorious command against Pontus. Lucius Cornelius Sulla was born in 138 BCE in Puteoli, Italy. His primary duty was the defeat of Mithridates and the re-establishment of Roman power in the east. They are the most direct evidence of a time or event because they were created by people or things that were there at the time or event. Primary source is a term used in a number of disciplines to describe source material that is closest to the person, information, period, or idea being studied. They had, however, fallen on hard times. Biographies of historical and famous people. Gaius Sallustius Crispus (Sallust) was born Amiternum in the country of the Sabines in 86 BC. Historian Suetonius records that when agreeing to spare Caesar, Sulla warned those who were pleading his case that he would become a danger to them in the future, saying, "In this Caesar, there are many Mariuses. In an harangue to the people, he said, with reference to these measures, that he had proscribed all he could think of, and as to those who now escaped his memory, he would proscribe them at some future time. Sulla, who opposed the Gracchian popularis reforms, was an optimate; though his coming to the side of the traditional Senate originally could be described as atavistic when dealing with the tribunate and legislative bodies, while more visionary when reforming the court system, governorships, and membership of the Senate. Secondary sources are interpretations of history. Upon his arrival, Sulla had his quaestor Lucullus order Sura, who had vitally delayed Mithridates' advances into Greece, to retreat back into Macedonia. Primary sources are documents, images, relics, or other works that provide firsthand details of a historical or scientific event. [104] When the Pontic cavalry attacked to interrupt the earthworks, the Romans almost broke; Sulla personally rallied his men on foot and stabilised the area. In the decades before Sulla had become dictator, Roman politics became increasingly violent. Sulla also wanted to reduce the risk that a future general might attempt to seize power, as he himself had done. Sulla immediately proscribed 80 persons without communicating with any magistrate. This also removed the need for the censor to draw up a list of senators, since more than enough former magistrates were always available to fill the Senate. The young Gaius Julius Caesar, as Cinna's son-in-law, became one of Sulla's targets, and fled the city. Sulla is generally seen as having set the precedent for Caesar's march on Rome and dictatorship. [13][14][15] Sulla's family thereafter did not reach the highest offices of the state until Sulla himself. Sulla would ratify Mithridates' position in Pontus and have him declared a Roman ally. In art, literature, and cultural studies, primary sources . He had one child from this union, before his first wife's death. [138], As promised, when his tasks were complete, Sulla returned his powers and withdrew to his country villa near Puteoli to be with his family. The next year, 96BC, he assigned "probably pro consule as was customary" to Cilicia in Asia Minor. [56] When the pro-Italian plebeian tribune Marcus Livius Drusus was assassinated in 91BC while trying again to pass a bill extending Roman citizenship, the Italians revolted. During these times on the stage, after initially only singing, he started writing plays, Atellan farces, a kind of crude comedy. What Is a Primary Source? Sulla can be seen as setting the precedent for Julius Caesar's dictatorship, and for the eventual end of the Republic under Augustus. Learning in Black and White. Primary Sources are immediate, first-hand accounts of a topic, from people who had a direct connection with it. Lucius Cornelius Sulla I. Marius, elected again to the consulship of 101, came to Catulus' aid; Sulla, in charge of supporting army provisioning, did so competently and was able to feed both armies. It was not until he was in his very late forties and almost past the age . [61] Pompeii was taken some time during the year, along with Stabiae and Aeclanum; with the capture of Aeclanum, Sulla forced the Hirpini to surrender. Cinna violently quarrelled with his co-consul, Gnaeus Octavius. Sulla's First Civil War (88-87 BC) was triggered by an attempt to strip him of the command against Mithridates and saw Sulla become the first Roman to lead an army against the city for four hundred years. Primary sources provide raw information and first-hand evidence. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix[8] (/sl/; 13878 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman. Threatened by the Pontic navy, Sulla sent his quaestor Lucullus to scrounge about for allied naval forces. [109] Faced with Fimbria's army in Asia, Lucullus' fleet off the coast, and internal unrest, Mithridates eventually met with Sulla at Dardanus in autumn 85BC and accepted the terms negotiated by Archelaus. Making of America. This, along with the increase in the number of courts, further added to the power that was already held by the senators. His rival, Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, described Sulla as having the cunning of a fox and the courage of a lion but that it was his cunning that was by far the most dangerous. [119][120] The remainder of 83BC was dedicated to recruiting for the next year's campaign amid poor weather: Quintus Sertorius had raised a considerable force in Etruria, but was alienated from the consuls by the election of Gaius Marius' son rather than himself and so left to his praetorian province of Hispania Citerior; Sulla repudiated recognition of any treaties with the Samnites, whom he did not consider to be Roman citizens due to his rejection of Marius and Cinna's deal in 87BC. Keep in mind as you use this website, the Web is always changing and evolving. Sulla, in full Lucius Cornelius Sulla or later Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix, (born 138 bcedied 79 bce, Puteoli [Pozzuoli, near Naples, Italy]), victor in the first full-scale civil war in Roman history (88-82 bce) and subsequently dictator (82-79), who carried out notable constitutional reforms in an attempt to strengthen the Roman Republic during the last century of its existence. Gnaeus Carbo attempted to lift the Siege of Praeneste but failed and fled to Africa. [104], After the Battle of Chaeronea, Sulla learnt that Cinna's government had sent Lucius Valerius Flaccus to take over his command. [96] Rome unsuccessfully defended Delos from an joint invasion by Athens and Pontus. There, Sulla attacked him in an indecisive battle. [67], Sulla's election to the consulship, successful likely due to his military success in 89BC, was not uncontested. Marius and his son, along with some others, escaped to Africa. Ancient accounts of Sulla's death indicate that he died from liver failure or a ruptured gastric ulcer (symptomized by a sudden hemorrhage from his mouth, followed by a fever from which he never recovered), possibly caused by chronic alcohol abuse. You can use the following terms to search HOLLIS for primary sources:. [76] Without troops defending Rome itself, Sulla entered the city; once there, however, his men were pelted with stones from the rooftops by common people. He was also notorious for his personal relationships . [2023] Welcome to The Internet History Sourcebooks Project, a collection of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts presented cleanly (without advertising or excessive layout) for educational use. [89] After Octavius induced the senate to outlaw Cinna, Cinna suborned the army besieging Nola and induced the Italians again to rise up. The proscriptions are widely perceived as a response to similar killings that Marius and Cinna had implemented while they controlled the Republic during Sulla's absence. Each actor's story is unique and each brings something important to the ensemble. These sources have not been modified by interpretation and offer original thought or new information. Sulla rose to prominence during the war against the Numidian king Jugurtha, whom he captured as a result of Jugurtha's betrayal by the king's allies, although his superior Gaius Marius took credit for ending the war. He brought Pompeii under siege. When he was still a proconsul in 82, he planned and executed the proscriptions against his enemies for revenge, especially from the Marian camp, and against rich Romans because he needed money to pay his veterans . [25] After the war started, several Roman commanders were bribed (Bestia and Spurius), and one (Aulus Postumius Albinus) was defeated. [141][140][142][143][144] Accounts were also written that he had an infestation of worms, caused by the ulcers, which led to his death. He won the first large-scale civil war in Roman history and became the first man of the Republic to seize power through force. With the capture and execution of Carbo, who had fled Sicily for Egypt, both consuls for 82BC were now dead. 101 BC: Took part in the defeat of the Cimbri at the, 90-89 BC: Senior officer in the Social War, as, Holds the consulship for the first time, with, 87 BC: Commands Roman armies to fight King, 85 BC: Liberates the provinces of Macedonia, Asia, and Cilicia from Pontic occupation, 83 BC: Returns to Italy and undertakes civil war against the factional Marian government, 83-82 BC: Enters war with the followers of Gaius Marius the Younger and Cinna, 82 BC: Obtains victory at the battle of the Colline Gate, 80 BC: Holds the consulship for the second time. Pompey ambushed eight legions sent to relieve Praeneste but an uprising from the Samnites and the Lucanians forced Sulla to deploy south as they moved also to relieve Praeneste or join with Carbo in the north. Sulla marched to Praeneste and forced its siege to a close, with the younger Marius dead from suicide before its surrender. The Mithridatic War (88 - 85 BC) Cicero comments that Pompey once said, "If Sulla could, why can't I? The collection is particularly strong in the subject areas of education, psychology, American history, sociology, religion, and science and technology. [27], When Marius took over the war, he entrusted Sulla to organise cavalry forces in Italy needed to pursue the mobile Numidians into the desert. [130], In total control of the city and its affairs, Sulla instituted a series of proscriptions (a program of executing and confiscating the property of those whom he perceived as enemies of the state). Cornelius Lucius Sulla; Lucius Cornelius Cinna (elder) Marcus Licinius Crassus; Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) Julius Caesar; Marcus . Newspaper reports, by reporters who witnessed an event or who quote people who did. [137][15] In a manner that the historian Suetonius thought arrogant, Julius Caesar later mocked Sulla for resigning the dictatorship. [40] His prospects for advancement under Marius stalled, however, Sulla started to complain "most unfairly" that Marius was withholding opportunities from him. At the same time, the younger Marius sent word to assemble the Senate and purge it of suspected Sullan sympathisers: the urban praetor Lucius Junius Brutus Damasippus then had four prominent men killed at the ensuing meeting. [81.4] It note also contains an account of Thracian . This unusual appointment (used hitherto only in times of extreme danger to the city, such as during the Second Punic War, and then only for 6-month periods) represented an exception to Rome's policy of not giving total power to a single individual. Book Sources: Bloody Sunday - Selma to Montgomery March (1965) A selection of books/e-books available in Trible Library. [57], The same year, Bocchus paid for the erection of a statue depicting Sulla's capture of Jugurtha.

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